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If children lack the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, then allowing them to develop their own moral beliefs becomes a cruel and dangerous strategy. This vision of the nature of childhood stands at the core of much traditionalist educational philosophy. If children will not develop healthy moral codes on their own, what must schools look like? For one thing, each classroom should have a strong, authoritarian teacher.
And that teacher must impose a series of correct moral values on students. It makes sense to dictate a list of right and wrong ideas to children, and require children to memorize such lists. With this understanding of the nature of childhood, it is not only uncomfortable but downright dangerous and irresponsible to encourage children to experiment with a variety of ideas.
So what are your children like?
The Discourse of Character Education
Do they need to be taught directly that some things are right and others are wrong? Or do they need to be allowed to experiment with a variety of ideas? Further reading: James C. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, For those who hope to understand Fundamentalist America in the twenty-first century, a good place and time to start would be Kanawha County, West Virginia, The raucous school year in this county surrounding Charleston saw a burst of public controversy over the teaching in its public schools.
Protesters vilified a set of textbooks adopted by the school district.
- Rhapsodie No. 1 in B Minor, Op. 79.
- Mimi Yang, "The Trump Wall: a Cultural Wall and a Cultural War" - Lateral.
- Can We Stop Fighting Over Schools? - Public Discourse.
- Sex & Happiness - The Tantric Laws of Intimacy;
- Elvis Presley - Guitar Chord Songbook.
The fight in Kanawha County, as argued by both protesters and historians, can correctly be seen as the birthplace, or at least the midwife, of an emerging populist conservative movement. The tone and style of his book are those of a bare-knuckled culture warrior rather than those of a disinterested academic.
Indeed, when ILYBYGTH first starting imagining how intelligent, educated people could embrace creationism see, for instance, here , here , here , here , and here , we were accused of being merely a front for Priest. In his book, Priest takes other writers to task for their anti-protester bias.
The protest movement, Priest insists, must not be understood as an irruption of racism or vigilante violence. Such accusations, Priest insists, demonstrate the bias of left-leaning scholars more than the lived reality of the protest itself. Priest agrees with other commentators that this textbook controversy provided the launching pad for a new kind of conservative activism.
The fledgling Heritage Foundation sent legal advisers. For anyone hoping to understand Fundamentalist America, this book is an important resource. They may not realize that they have some potential allies deep in the heart of the academic education establishment.
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And they dismiss the notion that classroom teachers should put authority in the hands of students. Also, fundamentalists often look askance at education professors who advocate soft-heading, child-centered classroom teaching that fails to deliver basic information and academic skills. Generally, fundamentalists make these complaints from outside of the academy. Then why does she talk this way? Because she framed the issue not as traditional and progressive, but as black and white. Her name is Lisa Delpit, and her traditionalist critique of progressive education did not lead to her exclusion from the education academy.
To be clear, Delpit demonstrated considerable differences from many other traditionalist education activists.
For example, she backs a multicultural approach to education, most conservative traditionalists do not. She supports reading in depth and excoriates rote instruction. But she also pushes a traditionalist ideology of teaching. In one career-making speech and article from the late s , Delpit castigated progressive educators for their misplaced softness toward students.
I go back to my own little cubby, my classroom, and I try to teach the way I know will work, no matter what those folk say. In one model Delpit described favorably, the teacher is the authority. In another critique, Delpit argued that white, middle-class teachers hid their classroom authority in ways that were confusing to poor and African American students.
Teachers of all backgrounds, Delpit suggested, need to be more explicit about their power and authority in the classroom. A call for traditional pedagogy and schooling seems to be gaining adherents among African American parents and educators. There are some indications that African American parents tend to use corporal punishment more often than other groups. But the same study asserts that a huge majority of parents of other groups also use corporal punishment at home.
And, indeed, there is a lot of support for corporal punishment at school among white conservative activists. But such support generally comes as part of a broader traditionalist, anti-progressive ideology of schooling.
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She argues for traditional authoritarian teachers within a progressive, multicultural educational system. For one thing, it tells us something about the current state of education scholarship. That is, education scholars might not be the petty intellectual tyrants some traditionalists accuse them of being. In a less rosy light, though, we might conclude that this is yet another example of the ways the mainstream academy is hamstrung over racial ideology.
It helps, of course, that Delpit is a wonderful writer and powerful polemicist.
But it is hard to ignore the question: How warmly would a scholar be welcomed who trashed the idea of progressive pedagogy in general? Not just for one group of students, but for students and schools in general? One other point jumps out at us: we apparently need to be more careful when we talk about traditionalist education. I am most interested in those traditionalists who act out of what we can fairly call a conservative impulse to transform American schools and society.
Activists from these groups have long believed that teaching must be made more traditional so that American society itself can reclaim some of its lost glory. But there are traditionalists like Delpit who hope that schools will transform school and society in a vastly different way. But religious historians are also interested in other forms of evangelicalism. There have always been leftist evangelicals, for instance, as Raymond Haberski has recently noted.
And, of course, there has always been a strong evangelical tradition among African Americans. Perhaps the most important notion to think about here is that we have more than one kind of educational traditionalism. Bashing progressive education has long been the national pastime of educational conservatives. For the last twenty-five years or so, such conservatives have been joined by an influential cadre of mainstream education scholars. Skills and other dilemmas of a progressive black educator. Harvard Educational Review , 56 4 , ; Delpit, Lisa.
New York:The New Press. What are schools for? Why go to school? For traditionalists, the answers to these questions call on some fundamental truths about human nature, culture, and youth. In the traditionalist vision, progressives have deformed American education because they have operated with a radically inaccurate understanding of these basic truths. To begin healing American schools, traditionalists could insist, we need to recognize a few of these central ideas:. If we acknowledge these fundamental truths, traditionalists could insist, we will be able to think about schooling in a clear-eyed, practical, effective way.
We will recognize the genius of the cultural legacy we have inherited. We will be able to see that the answers schools used for generations are better than the answers offered students in so-called progressive education. In the traditionalist view, once we understand these important facts about culture, education, and youth, a few basic notions about formal schooling will become clear:.
School is for transmitting information to students.